Continuous monitoring of upper-limb activity in a free-living environment: a validation study

A. Vega-González, B.J. Bain, P.M. Dall, M.H. Granat

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


Monitoring upper-limb activity in a free-living
environment is important for the evaluation of rehabilitation.
This study is a validation of the Strathclyde Upper-
Limb Activity Monitor (SULAM) which records the vertical
movement and position of each wrist, and assesses bimanual
movement. Agreement between the SULAM and two
independent video observers was assessed using interclass
correlation coefficients (ICC) and the Bland and Altman
method. Concurrent validity was very good for movement of
each upper-limb (ICC > 0.9), and good for the vertical
position of the wrist (ICC > 0.8 for wrist positions below the
shoulder, ICC > 0.6 otherwise). The ICC was good (>0.8)
for bimanual movement, however the SULAM systematically
underreported this by approximately 15%. The
SULAM could be a useful tool to assess upper-limb activity
of clinical populations in their usual environment.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)947-956
Number of pages10
JournalMedical and Biological Engineering and Computing
Issue number10
Early online date28 Jul 2007
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2007



  • arm
  • monitoring
  • ambulatory
  • rehabilitation
  • movement

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