Conjunctival ultraviolet autofluorescence area, but not intensity, is associated with myopia

Stephanie Kearney, Lisa O'Donoghue, Laura K Pourshahidi, Patrick Richardson, Eamon Laird, Martin Healy, Kathryn J Saunders

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

3 Downloads (Pure)

Abstract

BACKGROUND:
Conjunctival ultraviolet autofluorescence (CUVAF) has been used as a biomarker of time spent outdoors. Smaller CUVAF area is associated with myopia in southern hemisphere cohorts. Further research is required to determine if this association is replicated in northern latitudes and whether average CUVAF intensity is a valuable metric. This prospective study explored the association between myopia, CUVAF (area and intensity) and additional indicators of sun exposure (vitamin D3 and self-reported sun exposure preferences) across seasons at a location of 55° north.

METHODS:
Young adults (age 18-20) provided blood samples biannually (March/April and September/October) over an 18-month period (four phases) for the assessment of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D3 ) concentrations (liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry). CUVAF (total area, average intensity) and self-reported sun exposure preferences were recorded at each phase. Axial length and corneal radius were measured. Refractive error was measured by autorefractor and spherical equivalent refraction used to classify participants into refractive groups: myopic (spherical equivalent refraction = -0.50 DS) or non-myopic.

RESULTS:
Fifty-four participants (24 myopes, 30 non-myopes) participated. CUVAF area was negatively associated with the presence of myopia (odds ratio¿=¿0.94, 95¿per cent confidence interval¿=¿0.90-0.98, p¿=¿0.002). Myopes¿=¿4.5¿mm2 (interquartile range [IQR] 0.95-6.4¿mm2 ), non-myopes¿=¿7.0 mm2 (IQR¿=¿2.0-10.7 mm2 ). No significant association was found between CUVAF intensity and refractive group (p¿=¿0.17). There was no significant association between sun exposure preferences or serum concentration of 25(OH)D3 and refractive status (all p¿=¿0.21). CUVAF measures were not associated with ocular biometry measures (all p¿=¿0.084). CUVAF area was unaffected by season (all p¿=¿0.45) and variations in CUVAF area over the study period did not exceed the repeatability of the measurement technique.

CONCLUSION:
Myopia was associated with smaller areas of CUVAF indicative of less cumulative ultraviolet-B exposure. These findings suggest that CUVAF measures are a useful, non-invasive biomarker of the time spent outdoors in adults in northern hemisphere populations.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)43-50
Number of pages8
JournalClinical and Experimental Optometry
Volume102
Issue number1
Early online date16 Aug 2018
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2019

Fingerprint

Myopia
Solar System
Biomarkers
Biometry
Refractive Errors
Cholecalciferol
Tandem Mass Spectrometry
Liquid Chromatography
Young Adult
Odds Ratio
Prospective Studies
Confidence Intervals
Serum
Research
Population

Keywords

  • conjunctival ultraviolet autofluoresence
  • myopia
  • sun exposure

Cite this

Kearney, S., O'Donoghue, L., Pourshahidi, L. K., Richardson, P., Laird, E., Healy, M., & Saunders, K. J. (2019). Conjunctival ultraviolet autofluorescence area, but not intensity, is associated with myopia. Clinical and Experimental Optometry, 102(1), 43-50. https://doi.org/10.1111/cxo.12825
Kearney, Stephanie ; O'Donoghue, Lisa ; Pourshahidi, Laura K ; Richardson, Patrick ; Laird, Eamon ; Healy, Martin ; Saunders, Kathryn J. / Conjunctival ultraviolet autofluorescence area, but not intensity, is associated with myopia. In: Clinical and Experimental Optometry. 2019 ; Vol. 102, No. 1. pp. 43-50.
@article{049a819267af490095960a28ca8da69e,
title = "Conjunctival ultraviolet autofluorescence area, but not intensity, is associated with myopia",
abstract = "BACKGROUND:Conjunctival ultraviolet autofluorescence (CUVAF) has been used as a biomarker of time spent outdoors. Smaller CUVAF area is associated with myopia in southern hemisphere cohorts. Further research is required to determine if this association is replicated in northern latitudes and whether average CUVAF intensity is a valuable metric. This prospective study explored the association between myopia, CUVAF (area and intensity) and additional indicators of sun exposure (vitamin D3 and self-reported sun exposure preferences) across seasons at a location of 55° north.METHODS:Young adults (age 18-20) provided blood samples biannually (March/April and September/October) over an 18-month period (four phases) for the assessment of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D3 ) concentrations (liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry). CUVAF (total area, average intensity) and self-reported sun exposure preferences were recorded at each phase. Axial length and corneal radius were measured. Refractive error was measured by autorefractor and spherical equivalent refraction used to classify participants into refractive groups: myopic (spherical equivalent refraction = -0.50 DS) or non-myopic.RESULTS:Fifty-four participants (24 myopes, 30 non-myopes) participated. CUVAF area was negatively associated with the presence of myopia (odds ratio¿=¿0.94, 95¿per cent confidence interval¿=¿0.90-0.98, p¿=¿0.002). Myopes¿=¿4.5¿mm2 (interquartile range [IQR] 0.95-6.4¿mm2 ), non-myopes¿=¿7.0 mm2 (IQR¿=¿2.0-10.7 mm2 ). No significant association was found between CUVAF intensity and refractive group (p¿=¿0.17). There was no significant association between sun exposure preferences or serum concentration of 25(OH)D3 and refractive status (all p¿=¿0.21). CUVAF measures were not associated with ocular biometry measures (all p¿=¿0.084). CUVAF area was unaffected by season (all p¿=¿0.45) and variations in CUVAF area over the study period did not exceed the repeatability of the measurement technique.CONCLUSION:Myopia was associated with smaller areas of CUVAF indicative of less cumulative ultraviolet-B exposure. These findings suggest that CUVAF measures are a useful, non-invasive biomarker of the time spent outdoors in adults in northern hemisphere populations.",
keywords = "conjunctival ultraviolet autofluoresence, myopia, sun exposure",
author = "Stephanie Kearney and Lisa O'Donoghue and Pourshahidi, {Laura K} and Patrick Richardson and Eamon Laird and Martin Healy and Saunders, {Kathryn J}",
note = "Acceptance from webpage AAM req'd x 2 (10/12/18 DC, 8/2/19 ET) 12m embargo Author start date at GCU is after acceptance > apply exception 254a. ET 13/11/19",
year = "2019",
month = "1",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1111/cxo.12825",
language = "English",
volume = "102",
pages = "43--50",
journal = "Clinical and Experimental Optometry",
issn = "0816-4622",
publisher = "Wiley-Blackwell",
number = "1",

}

Kearney, S, O'Donoghue, L, Pourshahidi, LK, Richardson, P, Laird, E, Healy, M & Saunders, KJ 2019, 'Conjunctival ultraviolet autofluorescence area, but not intensity, is associated with myopia', Clinical and Experimental Optometry, vol. 102, no. 1, pp. 43-50. https://doi.org/10.1111/cxo.12825

Conjunctival ultraviolet autofluorescence area, but not intensity, is associated with myopia. / Kearney, Stephanie; O'Donoghue, Lisa; Pourshahidi, Laura K; Richardson, Patrick; Laird, Eamon; Healy, Martin; Saunders, Kathryn J.

In: Clinical and Experimental Optometry, Vol. 102, No. 1, 01.01.2019, p. 43-50.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Conjunctival ultraviolet autofluorescence area, but not intensity, is associated with myopia

AU - Kearney, Stephanie

AU - O'Donoghue, Lisa

AU - Pourshahidi, Laura K

AU - Richardson, Patrick

AU - Laird, Eamon

AU - Healy, Martin

AU - Saunders, Kathryn J

N1 - Acceptance from webpage AAM req'd x 2 (10/12/18 DC, 8/2/19 ET) 12m embargo Author start date at GCU is after acceptance > apply exception 254a. ET 13/11/19

PY - 2019/1/1

Y1 - 2019/1/1

N2 - BACKGROUND:Conjunctival ultraviolet autofluorescence (CUVAF) has been used as a biomarker of time spent outdoors. Smaller CUVAF area is associated with myopia in southern hemisphere cohorts. Further research is required to determine if this association is replicated in northern latitudes and whether average CUVAF intensity is a valuable metric. This prospective study explored the association between myopia, CUVAF (area and intensity) and additional indicators of sun exposure (vitamin D3 and self-reported sun exposure preferences) across seasons at a location of 55° north.METHODS:Young adults (age 18-20) provided blood samples biannually (March/April and September/October) over an 18-month period (four phases) for the assessment of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D3 ) concentrations (liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry). CUVAF (total area, average intensity) and self-reported sun exposure preferences were recorded at each phase. Axial length and corneal radius were measured. Refractive error was measured by autorefractor and spherical equivalent refraction used to classify participants into refractive groups: myopic (spherical equivalent refraction = -0.50 DS) or non-myopic.RESULTS:Fifty-four participants (24 myopes, 30 non-myopes) participated. CUVAF area was negatively associated with the presence of myopia (odds ratio¿=¿0.94, 95¿per cent confidence interval¿=¿0.90-0.98, p¿=¿0.002). Myopes¿=¿4.5¿mm2 (interquartile range [IQR] 0.95-6.4¿mm2 ), non-myopes¿=¿7.0 mm2 (IQR¿=¿2.0-10.7 mm2 ). No significant association was found between CUVAF intensity and refractive group (p¿=¿0.17). There was no significant association between sun exposure preferences or serum concentration of 25(OH)D3 and refractive status (all p¿=¿0.21). CUVAF measures were not associated with ocular biometry measures (all p¿=¿0.084). CUVAF area was unaffected by season (all p¿=¿0.45) and variations in CUVAF area over the study period did not exceed the repeatability of the measurement technique.CONCLUSION:Myopia was associated with smaller areas of CUVAF indicative of less cumulative ultraviolet-B exposure. These findings suggest that CUVAF measures are a useful, non-invasive biomarker of the time spent outdoors in adults in northern hemisphere populations.

AB - BACKGROUND:Conjunctival ultraviolet autofluorescence (CUVAF) has been used as a biomarker of time spent outdoors. Smaller CUVAF area is associated with myopia in southern hemisphere cohorts. Further research is required to determine if this association is replicated in northern latitudes and whether average CUVAF intensity is a valuable metric. This prospective study explored the association between myopia, CUVAF (area and intensity) and additional indicators of sun exposure (vitamin D3 and self-reported sun exposure preferences) across seasons at a location of 55° north.METHODS:Young adults (age 18-20) provided blood samples biannually (March/April and September/October) over an 18-month period (four phases) for the assessment of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D3 ) concentrations (liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry). CUVAF (total area, average intensity) and self-reported sun exposure preferences were recorded at each phase. Axial length and corneal radius were measured. Refractive error was measured by autorefractor and spherical equivalent refraction used to classify participants into refractive groups: myopic (spherical equivalent refraction = -0.50 DS) or non-myopic.RESULTS:Fifty-four participants (24 myopes, 30 non-myopes) participated. CUVAF area was negatively associated with the presence of myopia (odds ratio¿=¿0.94, 95¿per cent confidence interval¿=¿0.90-0.98, p¿=¿0.002). Myopes¿=¿4.5¿mm2 (interquartile range [IQR] 0.95-6.4¿mm2 ), non-myopes¿=¿7.0 mm2 (IQR¿=¿2.0-10.7 mm2 ). No significant association was found between CUVAF intensity and refractive group (p¿=¿0.17). There was no significant association between sun exposure preferences or serum concentration of 25(OH)D3 and refractive status (all p¿=¿0.21). CUVAF measures were not associated with ocular biometry measures (all p¿=¿0.084). CUVAF area was unaffected by season (all p¿=¿0.45) and variations in CUVAF area over the study period did not exceed the repeatability of the measurement technique.CONCLUSION:Myopia was associated with smaller areas of CUVAF indicative of less cumulative ultraviolet-B exposure. These findings suggest that CUVAF measures are a useful, non-invasive biomarker of the time spent outdoors in adults in northern hemisphere populations.

KW - conjunctival ultraviolet autofluoresence

KW - myopia

KW - sun exposure

U2 - 10.1111/cxo.12825

DO - 10.1111/cxo.12825

M3 - Article

VL - 102

SP - 43

EP - 50

JO - Clinical and Experimental Optometry

JF - Clinical and Experimental Optometry

SN - 0816-4622

IS - 1

ER -