Comparison of settlement calculation methods for the design of a gravity base foundation in deep water

Paul Smith, Nicholas Hytiris, Slobodan Mickovski

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution


The vast majority of offshore wind farms today are supported by mono-pile foundations. Until fairly recently mono-piles have
been un-challenged as the primary foundation type, but this is now changing. With offshore wind farms moving into deeper water, monopiles
are becoming a less suitable option, not only economically but also in terms of function. This paper focuses on concrete gravity base
foundations as an alternative to mono-piles for future offshore wind developments. More specifically the focus is on the geotechnical aspects
of concrete gravity base foundation design, particularly the calculation of foundation settlement using both traditional analytical and
numerical modelling methods. A design case study is performed using site-specific data for a future Scottish Territorial Waters offshore
wind farm site. This consisted primarily of geotechnical stability and settlement calculations. The findings indicated that there was a great
compliance between traditional analytical methods and numerical modelling approaches.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationProceedings of the XVI ECSMGE Geotechnical Engineering for Infrastructure and Development
PublisherICE Publishing
Number of pages7
ISBN (Print)978-0-7277-6067-8
Publication statusPublished - 23 Nov 2015


  • settlement calculation
  • gravity base foundation
  • offshore wind farms


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