Oestrogenic endocrine disruptors (OED) pose a significant threat to teleost fish species. The xeno-oestrogen 17a-ethinyloestradiol (EE2) impairs the reproduction of the sand goby (Pomatoschistus minutus), a marine and estuarine teleost, and is known to induce vitellogenin (VTG) and zona radiata protein (ZRP) transcription in males. VTG is the precursor of egg yolk proteins while ZRP forms part of the egg shell, and their inductions are used as biomarkers indicating OED exposure. Multiple forms of VTGs and ZRPs genes are found in teleost species, yet the characteristics of VTG and ZRP in the sand goby are unknown despite their previous use in studies of endocrine disruption and reproduction.
- sandy goby
- oestrogenic endocrine disruptors