Changes in the 24-h movement behaviors during the transition to retirement: compositional data analysis

Kristin Suorsa*, Tuija Leskinen, Jesse Pasanen, Anna Pulakka, Saana Myllyntausta, Jaana Pentti, Sebastien Chastin, Jussi Vahtera, Sari Stenholm

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Citations (Scopus)
33 Downloads (Pure)


BACKGROUND: Transition to retirement is shown to affect sleep, sedentary time and physical activity, but no previous studies have examined how retirement changes the distribution of time spent daily in these movement behaviors. The aim of this study was to examine longitudinally how the composition of 24-h movement behaviors changes during the transition to retirement using compositional data analysis (CoDA).

METHODS: We included 551 retiring public sector workers (mean age 63.2 years, standard deviation 1.1) from the Finnish Retirement and Aging study. The study participants wore a wrist-worn ActiGraph accelerometer for one week 24 h per day before and after retirement, with one year between the measurements. The daily proportions to time spent sleeping, in sedentary behavior (SED), light physical activity (LPA) and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) were estimated using the GGIR package. Changes in the daily proportions of movement behaviors were examined using Compositional Data Analysis version of linear mixed models.

RESULTS: In general, the proportion of time spent in active behaviors decreased relative to time spent in passive behaviors after retirement (p < .001). This change depended on occupation (occupation*time interaction p < .001). After retirement manual workers increased the proportions of both sleep and SED in relation to active behaviors, whereas non-manual workers increased the proportion of sleep in relation to active behaviors and SED. The proportion of MVPA decreased relatively more than the proportion of LPA (p = 0.01), independently of gender and occupation.

CONCLUSIONS: Retirement induced a decrease in the proportion of time spent in active behaviors, especially time spent in MVPA. Future studies are needed to find ways to maintain or increase daily physical activity levels at the cost of sedentary behaviors among retirees.

Original languageEnglish
Article number121
Number of pages11
JournalInternational Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity
Early online date15 Sept 2022
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 15 Sept 2022


  • Physical activity
  • Sedentary time
  • Occupation
  • Sleep
  • Accelerometer
  • Compositional data analysis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Nutrition and Dietetics
  • Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation
  • Medicine (miscellaneous)


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