Change in body height, axial length and refractive status over a four-year period in Caucasian children and young adults

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Abstract

Introduction Body height and axial length (AL) increase during childhood with excessive axial elongation resulting in myopia. There is no consensus regarding the association between body growth and AL during refractive development. This study explored the association between change in body height, AL and refractive status over 4-years in children and young adults. Material and Methods Measures were collected biennially (timepoints: t1, t2, t3) (t1 n = 140, aged 5-20years). Non-cycloplegic autorefraction was obtained using the Shin-Nippon openfield autorefractor. AL, corneal curvature (CC) and anterior chamber depth (ACD) were measured by IOL Master. Body height (cm) was measured using a wall mounted tape measure. Refractive status was classified using spherical equivalent refraction (SER): persistent emmetropes (PE) (-0.50D to +1.00D), persistent myopes (PM) (≤-0.50D), progressing myopes (PrM) (increase of ≤-0.50D between timepoints), incident myopes (IM) (subsequent SER≤-0.50D) and persistent hyperopes (PH) (>+1.00D). Results Change in AL and change in height were correlated in the PE (all t:p ≤ 0.003) and the IM (t1-t2 p = 0.04). For every increase in body height of 1 cm: t1-t2: AL increased by 0.03 mm in the PE, 0.15 in the PM, 0.11 mm in the IM, 0.14 mm in the PrM, -0.006 mm in the PH. T2-t3: AL increased by 0.02 mm in the PE, 0.06 in the PM, 0.16 mm in the PrM, 0.12 mm in the IM and -0.03 mm in the PH. Conclusions In emmetropia body growth and axial elongation are correlated. In participants with myopia, body growth appears to stabilise whilst axial elongation continues at a much faster rate indicating dysregulation of normal ocular growth.
Original languageEnglish
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Optometry
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 31 Jan 2020

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Body Height
Young Adult
Myopia
Growth
Emmetropia
Anterior Chamber
Consensus

Keywords

  • myopia
  • axial length
  • body height

Cite this

@article{363754a39b024de09d020f61d391ee08,
title = "Change in body height, axial length and refractive status over a four-year period in Caucasian children and young adults",
abstract = "Introduction Body height and axial length (AL) increase during childhood with excessive axial elongation resulting in myopia. There is no consensus regarding the association between body growth and AL during refractive development. This study explored the association between change in body height, AL and refractive status over 4-years in children and young adults. Material and Methods Measures were collected biennially (timepoints: t1, t2, t3) (t1 n = 140, aged 5-20years). Non-cycloplegic autorefraction was obtained using the Shin-Nippon openfield autorefractor. AL, corneal curvature (CC) and anterior chamber depth (ACD) were measured by IOL Master. Body height (cm) was measured using a wall mounted tape measure. Refractive status was classified using spherical equivalent refraction (SER): persistent emmetropes (PE) (-0.50D to +1.00D), persistent myopes (PM) (≤-0.50D), progressing myopes (PrM) (increase of ≤-0.50D between timepoints), incident myopes (IM) (subsequent SER≤-0.50D) and persistent hyperopes (PH) (>+1.00D). Results Change in AL and change in height were correlated in the PE (all t:p ≤ 0.003) and the IM (t1-t2 p = 0.04). For every increase in body height of 1 cm: t1-t2: AL increased by 0.03 mm in the PE, 0.15 in the PM, 0.11 mm in the IM, 0.14 mm in the PrM, -0.006 mm in the PH. T2-t3: AL increased by 0.02 mm in the PE, 0.06 in the PM, 0.16 mm in the PrM, 0.12 mm in the IM and -0.03 mm in the PH. Conclusions In emmetropia body growth and axial elongation are correlated. In participants with myopia, body growth appears to stabilise whilst axial elongation continues at a much faster rate indicating dysregulation of normal ocular growth.",
keywords = "myopia, axial length, body height",
author = "Stephanie Kearney and Strang, {Niall C.} and Bastian Cagnolati and Gray, {Lyle S.}",
note = "Acceptance from webpage AAM requested 03/02/20 ST",
year = "2020",
month = "1",
day = "31",
doi = "10.1016/j.optom.2019.12.008",
language = "English",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Change in body height, axial length and refractive status over a four-year period in Caucasian children and young adults

AU - Kearney, Stephanie

AU - Strang, Niall C.

AU - Cagnolati, Bastian

AU - Gray, Lyle S.

N1 - Acceptance from webpage AAM requested 03/02/20 ST

PY - 2020/1/31

Y1 - 2020/1/31

N2 - Introduction Body height and axial length (AL) increase during childhood with excessive axial elongation resulting in myopia. There is no consensus regarding the association between body growth and AL during refractive development. This study explored the association between change in body height, AL and refractive status over 4-years in children and young adults. Material and Methods Measures were collected biennially (timepoints: t1, t2, t3) (t1 n = 140, aged 5-20years). Non-cycloplegic autorefraction was obtained using the Shin-Nippon openfield autorefractor. AL, corneal curvature (CC) and anterior chamber depth (ACD) were measured by IOL Master. Body height (cm) was measured using a wall mounted tape measure. Refractive status was classified using spherical equivalent refraction (SER): persistent emmetropes (PE) (-0.50D to +1.00D), persistent myopes (PM) (≤-0.50D), progressing myopes (PrM) (increase of ≤-0.50D between timepoints), incident myopes (IM) (subsequent SER≤-0.50D) and persistent hyperopes (PH) (>+1.00D). Results Change in AL and change in height were correlated in the PE (all t:p ≤ 0.003) and the IM (t1-t2 p = 0.04). For every increase in body height of 1 cm: t1-t2: AL increased by 0.03 mm in the PE, 0.15 in the PM, 0.11 mm in the IM, 0.14 mm in the PrM, -0.006 mm in the PH. T2-t3: AL increased by 0.02 mm in the PE, 0.06 in the PM, 0.16 mm in the PrM, 0.12 mm in the IM and -0.03 mm in the PH. Conclusions In emmetropia body growth and axial elongation are correlated. In participants with myopia, body growth appears to stabilise whilst axial elongation continues at a much faster rate indicating dysregulation of normal ocular growth.

AB - Introduction Body height and axial length (AL) increase during childhood with excessive axial elongation resulting in myopia. There is no consensus regarding the association between body growth and AL during refractive development. This study explored the association between change in body height, AL and refractive status over 4-years in children and young adults. Material and Methods Measures were collected biennially (timepoints: t1, t2, t3) (t1 n = 140, aged 5-20years). Non-cycloplegic autorefraction was obtained using the Shin-Nippon openfield autorefractor. AL, corneal curvature (CC) and anterior chamber depth (ACD) were measured by IOL Master. Body height (cm) was measured using a wall mounted tape measure. Refractive status was classified using spherical equivalent refraction (SER): persistent emmetropes (PE) (-0.50D to +1.00D), persistent myopes (PM) (≤-0.50D), progressing myopes (PrM) (increase of ≤-0.50D between timepoints), incident myopes (IM) (subsequent SER≤-0.50D) and persistent hyperopes (PH) (>+1.00D). Results Change in AL and change in height were correlated in the PE (all t:p ≤ 0.003) and the IM (t1-t2 p = 0.04). For every increase in body height of 1 cm: t1-t2: AL increased by 0.03 mm in the PE, 0.15 in the PM, 0.11 mm in the IM, 0.14 mm in the PrM, -0.006 mm in the PH. T2-t3: AL increased by 0.02 mm in the PE, 0.06 in the PM, 0.16 mm in the PrM, 0.12 mm in the IM and -0.03 mm in the PH. Conclusions In emmetropia body growth and axial elongation are correlated. In participants with myopia, body growth appears to stabilise whilst axial elongation continues at a much faster rate indicating dysregulation of normal ocular growth.

KW - myopia

KW - axial length

KW - body height

U2 - 10.1016/j.optom.2019.12.008

DO - 10.1016/j.optom.2019.12.008

M3 - Article

ER -