Bond-graph modeling: a tutorial introduction for control engineers

Peter J. Gawthrop, Geraint P. Bevan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

184 Citations (Scopus)
3876 Downloads (Pure)


The bond-graph method is a graphical approach to modeling in which component energy ports are connected by bonds that specify the transfer of energy between system components. Power, the rate of energy transport between components, is the universal currency of physical systems. Bond graphs are inherently energy based and thus related to other energy-based methods, including dissipative systems and port-Hamiltonians. This article has presented an introduction to bond graphs for control engineers. Although the notation can initially appear daunting, the bond graph method is firmly grounded in the familiar concepts of energy and power. The essential element to be grasped is that bonds represent power transactions between components
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)24-45
Number of pages22
JournalIEEE Control Systems
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2007


  • bond graphs
  • control system analysis
  • power transactions
  • component energy ports
  • dissipative systems
  • energy transport

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Control and Systems Engineering
  • Energy Engineering and Power Technology


Dive into the research topics of 'Bond-graph modeling: a tutorial introduction for control engineers'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this