Biomarkers associated with lower limb muscle function in individuals with sarcopenia: a systematic review

Rebecca Louise Jones, Lorna Paul, Martijn P. M. Steultjens, Stephanie Smith*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

Abstract

Lower limb muscle dysfunction is a key driver for impaired physical capacity and frailty status, both characteristics of sarcopenia. Sarcopenia is the key pathway between frailty and disability. Identifying biological markers for early diagnosis, treatment and prevention may be key to early intervention and prevention of disability particularly mobility issues. To identify biological markers associated with lower limb muscle (dys)function in adults with sarcopenia.
Methods: A systematic literature search was conducted in AMED, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, Medline, PubMed, Scopus, SPORTDiscus and Web of Science databases from inception to 17th November 2021. Title, abstract and full text screening, data extraction, and methodological quality assessment was performed by two reviewers independently and verified by a third reviewer.
Results: Twenty eligible studies including 3,306 participants were included (Females: 79%, Males: 15%, Unreported: 6%; mean age ranged from 53-92 years) with 36% in a distinct sarcopenic subgroup (Females: 73%, Males: 19%, Unreported: 8%; mean age range 55-92 years). A total of 119 biomarkers categorised were reported: genetic and microRNA’s (n=64), oxidative stress (n=10), energy metabolism (n=17), inflammation (n=7), enzyme (n=4), hormone (n=7), bone (n=3), vitamin (n=2) and cytokine (n=4) markers), and seven lower limb muscle measures including predominately focused on strength. Seven studies reported associations between lower limb muscle measures including (e.g., power, force, torque) and biomarkers. In individuals with sarcopenia muscle strength was positively associated with free testosterone (r=0.40, p=0.01; n=46). In analysis with combined sarcopenic and non-sarcopenic individuals, muscle strength was positively associated with combined genetic and methylation score (partial R2=0.122, p=0.03; n=48), and negatively associated with sarcopenia driven methylation score ( partial R2=0.401, p0.05; n=48), oxidative stress (r=0.061, p>0.05; n≥77), hormone (r=0.01, ρ=0.052 p>0.05, n≥46) and combined protein, oxidative stress, muscle performance, and hormones (R2=22.0, p>0.05; n≥82) did not report significant associations with lower limb muscle strength.
Conclusions: Several biomarkers demonstrated associations with lower limb muscle dysfunction. The current literature remains difficult to draw clear conclusions on the relationship between biomarkers and lower limb muscle dysfunction in adults with sarcopenia. Heterogeneity of biomarkers and lower limb muscle function precluded direct comparison. Use of international classification of sarcopenia, and a set of core standardised outcome measures should be adopted to aid future investigation and recommendations to be made.
Original languageEnglish
Number of pages16
JournalJournal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
Early online date17 Aug 2022
DOIs
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 17 Aug 2022

Keywords

  • lower limb
  • cytokines
  • muscle strength
  • muscle mass
  • inflammation

Fingerprint

Dive into the research topics of 'Biomarkers associated with lower limb muscle function in individuals with sarcopenia: a systematic review'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this