This review covers developments in the analysis of chemicals, metals and functional materials. We have strengthened the criticality of this review and have included only those papers dealing with advances in the analysis of these materials. Other papers which the reader may find useful because they cover interesting applications are included in the tables. It follows last year's review1 and should be read in conjunction with other reviews in the series.2–5 Significant developments during this review period include the continued expansion of the use of LIBS in remote analysis, especially of explosives, metals and nuclear materials. The stand-off capability of the technique makes it very desirable in these areas. The use of chemometrics for removing substrate interferences is proving to be effective in making the technique more robustly quantitative and a number of papers developing the understanding of plasma physics to improve the technique of LIBS are reviewed. Multiple spectroscopic techniques are being developed to maximize the knowledge which can be derived from the analysis, especially of high value samples, for example the combination of LIBS and Raman measurements to gain molecular and atomic spectral information. Advances in the analysis of nano-materials and single particles are reviewed and papers dealing with single particle analysis, field flow fractionation and related techniques coupled with ICP-MS are advancing the analytical chemistry in the field. These techniques are also increasingly being used in vivo and in biological areas. Depth profiling of semiconductor materials is an important area during this review period, especially for the determination of dopant elements.
- chemical analysis
- atomic spectrometry