Amid the traditional development and applications work reported during the period covered by this review, the most obvious identifiable trend is that of downsizing. This is seen with techniques requiring smaller sample sizes or more effective analyte pre-concentration, and with new instrumentation. Procedures for extraction included the use of nanoparticles in various ways and the single-drop methodology with one example exploiting 1-dodecanol, a material that shifts between liquid and solid states at around room temperature. Hand held instrumentation is commonplace in some application areas but less so within the sector covered by this Update. However an XRF device was used to carry out limit tests for harmful metals in pharmaceutical agents. The potential for expansion of in vivo testing is now on the horizon with the development of a portable XRF instrument.
- atomic spectrometry
- XRF instrument