Association between cholera outbreak and traditional gold mining in Northern State, Sudan 2017

Mohamed Ali Alzain, Mogahid Hassan Haruwn, Mohamed Osman Abdelaziz, Mohamed Elsheikh, Collins Otieno Asweto, Fahad D Algahtani, Adeniyi Abolaji Adeboye, Najm Eldinn Elsser Elhassan, Ramaiah Itumalla

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Abstract

INTRODUCTION: Cholera is one of the health problems causing considerable morbidity and mortality. The Northern State of Sudan experienced a recent cholera outbreak, however, there are limited data on the outbreak.

METHODS: The objective of this study was to assess the magnitude and risk factors associated with the cholera outbreak in the Northern State of Sudan. A retrospective case series study was conducted in the Northern State of Sudan, which involved tracing cases of cholera outbreak of 2017. Data were collected through reports and interviews. A geographical information system was used to map all cases during the outbreak. Chi-square test and logistic regression were used to identify associated factors.

RESULTS: There were 957 cholera cases reported in the state with an attack rate of 14.2/10,000 persons. Dalgo locality had the highest number (415) of cases reported with an attack rate of 167.2/10,000 persons. About 78% of cases were adult males, while 56.2% of cases were immigrants from other states. Immigrants in Halfa and Dalgo localities were four times (odds ratio [OR] = 4.031, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.482-6.547) and eight times (OR = 8.318, 95% CI: 5.674-12.193), respectively, at risk of cholera infection compared to immigrants in Dongola locality. The overall case-fatality rate was 1.9%. This was significantly higher in younger (5.8%) and older (22.7%) age groups (P < 0.05).

CONCLUSIONS: The study revealed that the cholera outbreak spread highly along with traditional gold mining areas due to poor sanitation. Therefore, improving sanitation services and establishing an effective surveillance system in these areas are essential to prevent future occurrence of outbreaks.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)115-119
Number of pages5
JournalJournal of global infectious diseases
Volume13
Issue number3
Early online date19 Aug 2021
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2021
Externally publishedYes

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