Pulmonary arterial hypertension, group 1 of the pulmonary hypertension disease family, involves pulmonary vascular remodelling, right ventricular dysfunction and cardiac failure. Oxidative stress, through activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases is implicated in these changes. Inhibition of apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1, an apical mitogen-activated protein kinase, prevented pulmonary arterial hypertension developing in rodent models. Here, we investigate apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 in pulmonary arterial hypertension by examining the impact that its inhibition has on the molecular and cellular signalling in established disease. Apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 inhibition was investigated in in vivo pulmonary arterial hypertension and in vitro pulmonary hypertension models. In the in vivo model, male Sprague Dawley rats received a single subcutaneous injection of Sugen SU5416 (20 mg/kg) prior to two weeks of hypobaric hypoxia (380 mmHg) followed by three weeks normoxia (Sugen/hypoxic), then animals were either maintained for three weeks on control chow or one containing apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 inhibitor (100 mg/kg/day). Cardiovascular measurements were carried out. In the in vitro model, primary cultures of rat pulmonary artery fibroblasts and rat pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells were maintained in hypoxia (5% O2) and investigated for proliferation, migration and molecular signalling in the presence or absence of apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 inhibitor. Sugen/hypoxic animals displayed significant pulmonary arterial hypertension compared to normoxic controls at eight weeks. Apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 inhibitor decreased right ventricular systolic pressure to control levels and reduced muscularised vessels in lung tissue. Apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 inhibition was found to prevent hypoxia-induced proliferation, migration and cytokine release in rat pulmonary artery fibroblasts and also prevented rat pulmonary artery fibroblast-induced rat pulmonary artery smooth muscle cell migration and proliferation. Apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 inhibition reversed pulmonary arterial hypertension in the Sugen/hypoxic rat model. These effects may be a result of intrinsic changes in the signalling of adventitial fibroblast.
- pulmonary hypertension
- mitogen activated protein kinases
- sugen/hypoxic rat model
Wilson, K., Buist, H., Suveizdyte, K., Liles, J. T., Budas, G. R., Hughes, C., MacLean, M. R., Johnson, M., Church, A. C., Peacock, A. J., & Welsh, D. (2020). Apoptosis signal-regulating Kinase 1 (ASK1) inhibition in in vivo and in vitro models of pulmonary hypertension. Pulmonary Circulation. https://doi.org/10.1177/2045894020922810