Anthrax infection among heroin users in Scotland during 2009-2010: a case-control study by linkage to a national drug treatment database

Norah Palmateer, Colin N. Ramsay, Lynda Browning, David J. Goldberg, Sharon Hutchinson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


Using a data-linkage approach, we conducted a case-control study to investigate risk factors in an outbreak of anthrax infection among Scottish heroin users. Factors associated with an increased risk of infection included longer injecting history, receiving opioid substitution therapy, and alcohol consumption. Smoking heroin was associated with lower risk of infection.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)706-710
Number of pages5
JournalClinical Infectious Diseases
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 2012



  • anthrax
  • heroin users
  • Scotland
  • epidemiology

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