An objective approach to dry eye disease severity

Benjamin D. Sullivan, Diane Whitmer, Kelly K. Nichols, Alan Tomlinson, Gary N. Foulks, Gerd Geerling, Jay S. Pepose, Valerie Kosheleff

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

396 Citations (Scopus)


A prospective, multisite clinical study (10 sites in the European Union and the United States) evaluated the clinical utility of commonly used tests and tear osmolarity for assessing dry eye disease severity. Three hundred fourteen consecutive subjects between the ages of 18 and 82 years were recruited from the general patient population, 299 of which qualified with complete datasets. Osmolarity testing, Schirmer test without anesthesia, tear film breakup time (TBUT), corneal staining, meibomian dysfunction assessment, and conjunctival staining were performed bilaterally. A symptom questionnaire, the Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI), was also administered to each patient. Distributions of clinical signs and symptoms against a continuous composite severity index were evaluated.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)6125-6130
Number of pages6
JournalInvestigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science
Issue number12
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jul 2010


  • dry eye
  • vision sciences


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