An application of Bandura's ‘Four Sources of Self-Efficacy’ to the self-management of type 2 diabetes in people with intellectual disability: an inductive and deductive thematic analysis

Andrew Maine, Adele Dickson, Maria Truesdale, Michael Brown

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

38 Downloads (Pure)


Little is known about the successful experiences and positive perceptions of people with intellectual disabilities (ID) self-managing Type 2 Diabetes (T2D). This study sought to address this gap using Bandura’s (1977) ‘Four Sources of Self-Efficacy’ as a framework of enquiry.

Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 10 adults with ID. Interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed using inductive and deductive thematic analysis

Nine sub-themes were identified following analysis of the data: 1) Mastery through knowledge; 2) Mastery through tools and strategies; 3) Mastery through autonomy; 4) Influence of social setting; 5) Positive social comparisons; 6) Positive and negative self-statements; 7) Feedback from caregivers; 8) Adjustment experiences; 9) Symptom awareness. These were mapped onto Bandura’s (1977) Four Sources of efficacy enhancement model and were consistent with its proposed mechanisms.

The Four Sources model serves as a useful mode of enquiry for exploring people with ID’s experiences and perceptions of self-managing diabetes. It also confirms the appropriateness of Self-efficacy as a potential intervention component for this population. However, additional support may be required for people with ID to reflect meaningfully on their experiences and thus have a sense of self-efficacy.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)75-84
Number of pages10
JournalResearch in Developmental Disabilities
Early online date15 Sep 2017
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2017



  • self-management
  • type 2 diabetes
  • intellectual disabilities

Cite this