Alopecia areata: a multifactorial autoimmune condition

Teontor Simakou, John P. Butcher, Stuart Reid, Fiona L. Henriquez

Research output: Contribution to journalLiterature review

Abstract

Alopecia areata is an autoimmune disease that results in non-scarring hair loss, and it is clinically characterised by small patches of baldness on the scalp and/or around the body. It can later progress to total loss of scalp hair (Alopecia totalis) and/or total loss of all body hair (Alopecia universalis). The rapid rate of hair loss and disfiguration caused by the condition causes anxiety on patients and increases the risks of developing psychological and psychiatric complications. Hair loss in alopecia areata is caused by lymphocytic infiltrations around the hair follicles and IFN-¿. IgG antibodies against the hair follicle cells are also found in alopecia areata sufferers. In addition, the disease coexists with other autoimmune disorders and can come secondary to infections or inflammation. However, despite the growing knowledge about alopecia areata, the aetiology and pathophysiology of disease are not well defined. In this review we discuss various genetic and environmental factors that cause autoimmunity and describe the immune mechanisms that lead to hair loss in alopecia areata patients.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)74-85
Number of pages12
JournalJournal of Autoimmunity
Volume98
Early online date15 Dec 2018
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Mar 2019

Fingerprint

Alopecia Areata
Alopecia
Hair Follicle
Scalp
Autoimmunity
Coinfection
Hair
Autoimmune Diseases
Psychiatry
Anxiety
Immunoglobulin G
Psychology
Inflammation
Antibodies

Keywords

  • alopecia areata
  • polygenic autoimmune disease
  • autoreactive lymphocytes
  • oxidative stress
  • infection
  • JAK inhibitors

Cite this

Simakou, T., Butcher, J. P., Reid, S., & Henriquez, F. L. (2019). Alopecia areata: a multifactorial autoimmune condition. Journal of Autoimmunity, 98, 74-85. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaut.2018.12.001
Simakou, Teontor ; Butcher, John P. ; Reid, Stuart ; Henriquez, Fiona L. . / Alopecia areata: a multifactorial autoimmune condition. In: Journal of Autoimmunity. 2019 ; Vol. 98. pp. 74-85.
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Simakou, T, Butcher, JP, Reid, S & Henriquez, FL 2019, 'Alopecia areata: a multifactorial autoimmune condition', Journal of Autoimmunity, vol. 98, pp. 74-85. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaut.2018.12.001

Alopecia areata: a multifactorial autoimmune condition. / Simakou, Teontor; Butcher, John P.; Reid, Stuart; Henriquez, Fiona L. .

In: Journal of Autoimmunity, Vol. 98, 01.03.2019, p. 74-85.

Research output: Contribution to journalLiterature review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Alopecia areata: a multifactorial autoimmune condition

AU - Simakou, Teontor

AU - Butcher, John P.

AU - Reid, Stuart

AU - Henriquez, Fiona L.

N1 - Acceptance from webpage Pub date added by author AAM: 12m embargo

PY - 2019/3/1

Y1 - 2019/3/1

N2 - Alopecia areata is an autoimmune disease that results in non-scarring hair loss, and it is clinically characterised by small patches of baldness on the scalp and/or around the body. It can later progress to total loss of scalp hair (Alopecia totalis) and/or total loss of all body hair (Alopecia universalis). The rapid rate of hair loss and disfiguration caused by the condition causes anxiety on patients and increases the risks of developing psychological and psychiatric complications. Hair loss in alopecia areata is caused by lymphocytic infiltrations around the hair follicles and IFN-¿. IgG antibodies against the hair follicle cells are also found in alopecia areata sufferers. In addition, the disease coexists with other autoimmune disorders and can come secondary to infections or inflammation. However, despite the growing knowledge about alopecia areata, the aetiology and pathophysiology of disease are not well defined. In this review we discuss various genetic and environmental factors that cause autoimmunity and describe the immune mechanisms that lead to hair loss in alopecia areata patients.

AB - Alopecia areata is an autoimmune disease that results in non-scarring hair loss, and it is clinically characterised by small patches of baldness on the scalp and/or around the body. It can later progress to total loss of scalp hair (Alopecia totalis) and/or total loss of all body hair (Alopecia universalis). The rapid rate of hair loss and disfiguration caused by the condition causes anxiety on patients and increases the risks of developing psychological and psychiatric complications. Hair loss in alopecia areata is caused by lymphocytic infiltrations around the hair follicles and IFN-¿. IgG antibodies against the hair follicle cells are also found in alopecia areata sufferers. In addition, the disease coexists with other autoimmune disorders and can come secondary to infections or inflammation. However, despite the growing knowledge about alopecia areata, the aetiology and pathophysiology of disease are not well defined. In this review we discuss various genetic and environmental factors that cause autoimmunity and describe the immune mechanisms that lead to hair loss in alopecia areata patients.

KW - alopecia areata

KW - polygenic autoimmune disease

KW - autoreactive lymphocytes

KW - oxidative stress

KW - infection

KW - JAK inhibitors

U2 - 10.1016/j.jaut.2018.12.001

DO - 10.1016/j.jaut.2018.12.001

M3 - Literature review

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Simakou T, Butcher JP, Reid S, Henriquez FL. Alopecia areata: a multifactorial autoimmune condition. Journal of Autoimmunity. 2019 Mar 1;98:74-85. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaut.2018.12.001