Advances in biotechnology: genomics and genome editing

Kevan M.A. Gartland, Munis Dundar, Tommaso Beccari, Mariapia Viola Magni, Jill S. Gartland

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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    Abstract

    Genomics, the study of genes, their functions and related techniques has become a crucial science for developing understanding of life processes and how they evolve. Since the advent of the human genome project, huge strides have been made in developing understanding of DNA and RNA sequence information and how it can be put to good use in the biotechnology sector. Newly derived sequencing and bioinformatics tools have added to the torrent of new insights gained, so that ‘sequence once and query often’ type DNA apps are now becoming reality. Genome editing, using tools such as CRISPR/Cas9 nuclease or Cpf1 nuclease, provide rapid methods for inserting, deleting or modifying DNA sequences in highly precise ways, in virtually any animal, plant or microbial system. Recent international discussions have considered human germline gene editing, amongst other aspects of this technology. Whether or not gene edited plants will be considered as genetically modified remains an important question. This will determine the regulatory processes adopted by different groups of nations and applicability to feeding the world’s ever growing population. Questions surrounding the intellectual property rights associated with gene editing must also be resolved. Mitochondrial replacement therapy leading to ‘3-Parent Babies’ has been successfully carried out in Mexico, by an international team, to correct mother to child mitochondrial disease transmission. The UK has become the first country to legally allow ‘cautious use’ of mitochondrial donation in treatment. Genomics and genome editing will continue to advance what can be achieved technically, whilst society determines whether or not what can be done should be applied.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)3-10
    Number of pages8
    JournalThe EuroBiotech Journal
    Volume1
    Issue number1
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 27 Jan 2017

    Fingerprint

    Biotechnology
    Genomics
    Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats
    Intellectual Property
    Human Genome Project
    Mitochondrial Diseases
    Plant Genes
    Ownership
    Mexico
    Computational Biology
    Mothers
    Technology
    Gene Editing
    DNA
    Population
    Genes
    Therapeutics

    Keywords

    • genomics, gene editing, biotechnology

    Cite this

    Gartland, K. M. A., Dundar, M., Beccari, T., Magni, M. V., & Gartland, J. S. (2017). Advances in biotechnology: genomics and genome editing. The EuroBiotech Journal, 1(1), 3-10. https://doi.org/10.24190/ISSN2564-615X/2017/01.02
    Gartland, Kevan M.A. ; Dundar, Munis ; Beccari, Tommaso ; Magni, Mariapia Viola ; Gartland, Jill S. / Advances in biotechnology: genomics and genome editing. In: The EuroBiotech Journal. 2017 ; Vol. 1, No. 1. pp. 3-10.
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    Gartland, KMA, Dundar, M, Beccari, T, Magni, MV & Gartland, JS 2017, 'Advances in biotechnology: genomics and genome editing', The EuroBiotech Journal, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 3-10. https://doi.org/10.24190/ISSN2564-615X/2017/01.02

    Advances in biotechnology: genomics and genome editing. / Gartland, Kevan M.A.; Dundar, Munis; Beccari, Tommaso; Magni, Mariapia Viola; Gartland, Jill S.

    In: The EuroBiotech Journal, Vol. 1, No. 1, 27.01.2017, p. 3-10.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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    Gartland KMA, Dundar M, Beccari T, Magni MV, Gartland JS. Advances in biotechnology: genomics and genome editing. The EuroBiotech Journal. 2017 Jan 27;1(1):3-10. https://doi.org/10.24190/ISSN2564-615X/2017/01.02