Obesity-associated conditions represent major global health and financial burdens and understanding processes regulating adipogenesis could lead to novel intervention strategies. This study shows that adhesion G-protein coupled receptor 56 (GPR56) gene transcripts are reduced in abdominal visceral white adipose tissue derived from obese Zucker rats versus lean controls. Immunostaining in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes reveals both mitotic cell restricted surface and low level general expression patterns of Gpr56. Gpr56 transcripts are differentially expressed in 3T3-L1 cells during adipogenesis. Transient knockdown (KD) of Gpr56 in 3T3-L1 cells dramatically inhibits differentiation through reducing the accumulation of both neutral cellular lipids (56%) and production of established adipogenesis Ppar¿ 2 (60–80%), C/ebpa (40–78%) mediator, and Ap2 (56–80%) marker proteins. Furthermore, genome editing of Gpr56 in 3T3-L1 cells created CW2.2.4 and RM22.214.171.124 clones (Gpr56 -/- cells) with compound heterozygous deletion frameshift mutations which abolish adipogenesis. Genome edited cells have sustained levels of the adipogenesis inhibitor ß-catenin, reduced proliferation, reduced adhesion, altered profiles, and or abundance of extracellular matrix component gene transcripts for fibronectin, types I, III, and IV collagens and loss of actin stress fibers. ß-catenin KD alone is insufficient to restore adipogenesis in Gpr56 -/- cells. Together these data show that Gpr56 is required for adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells. This report is the first demonstration that Gpr56 participates in regulation of the adipogenesis developmental program. Modulation of the levels of this protein and/or its biological activity may represent a novel target for development of therapeutic agents for the treatment of obesity.
- genome editing
- extracellular matrix