A virtual MIMO dual-hop architecture based on hybrid spatial modulation

Athanasios Stavridis, Dushyantha Basnayaka, Sinan Sinanovic, Marco Di Renzo, Harald Haas

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    43 Citations (Scopus)
    340 Downloads (Pure)


    In this paper, we propose a novel Virtual Multiple-Input-Multiple-Output (VMIMO) architecture based on the concept of Spatial Modulation (SM). Using a dual-hop and Decode-and-Forward protocol, we form a distributed system, called Dual-Hop Hybrid SM (DH-HSM). DH-HSM conveys information from a Source Node (SN) to a Destination Node (DN) via multiple Relay Nodes (RNs). The spatial position of the RNs is exploited for transferring information in addition to, or even without, a conventional symbol. In order to increase the performance of our architecture, while keeping the complexity of the RNs and DN low, we employ linear precoding using Channel State Information (CSI) at the SN. In this way, we form a Receive-Spatial Modulation (R-SM) pattern from the SN to the RNs, which is able to employ a centralized coordinated or a distributed uncoordinated detection algorithm at the RNs. In addition, we focus on the SN and propose two regularized linear precoding methods that employ realistic Imperfect Channel State Information at the Transmitter. The power of each precoder is analyzed theoretically. Using the Bit Error Rate (BER) metric, we evaluate our architecture against the following benchmark systems: 1) single relay; 2) best relay selection; 3) distributed Space Time Block Coding (STBC) VMIMO scheme; and 4) the direct communication link. We show that DH-HSM is able to achieve significant Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) gains, which can be as high as 10.5 dB for a very large scale system setup. In order to verify our simulation results, we provide an analytical framework for the evaluation of the Average Bit Error Probability (ABEP).
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)3161-3179
    Number of pages19
    JournalIEEE Transactions on Communications
    Issue number9
    Early online date29 Jul 2014
    Publication statusPublished - Sept 2014


    • system architecture
    • spatial modulation
    • distributed system
    • algorithm


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