INTRODUCTION: It is unclear whether adiposity leads to changes in movement behaviors, and there is a lack of compositional analyses of longitudinal data which focus on these associations. Using a compositional approach, this study aimed to examine the associations between baseline adiposity and 7-year changes in physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior (SB) among elderly women. We also explored the longitudinal associations between change in adiposity and change in movement-behavior composition.
METHODS: This longitudinal study included 176 older women (mean baseline age 62.8 (4.1) years) from Central Europe. Movement behavior was assessed by accelerometers and adiposity was measured by bioelectrical impedance analysis at baseline and follow-up. A set of multivariate least-squares regression analyses was used to examine the associations of baseline adiposity and longitudinal changes in adiposity as explanatory variables with longitudinal changes in a 3-part movement-behavior composition consisting of SB, light PA (LPA) and moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) as outcome variables.
RESULTS: No significant associations were found between baseline adiposity and longitudinal changes in the movement-behavior composition (p > 0.05). We found significant associations of changes in body mass index (BMI) and fat mass percentage (FM%) with changes in the movement-behavior composition. An increase in BMI was associated with an increase of SB at the expense of LPA and MVPA (β = 0.042, p = 0.009) and with a decrease of MVPA in favor of SB and LPA (β = - 0.059, p = 0.037). An increase in FM% was significantly associated only with an increase of SB at the expense of LPA and MVPA (β = 0.019, p = 0.031).
CONCLUSIONS: This study did not support the assumption that baseline adiposity is associated with longitudinal changes in movement behaviors among elderly women, but we found evidence for change-to-change associations, suggesting that a 7-year increase in adiposity is associated with a concurrent increase of SB at the expense of LPA and MVPA and with a concurrent decrease of MVPA in favor of LPA and SB. Public health interventions are needed to simultaneously prevent weight gain and promote physically active lifestyle among elderly women.
- Body Mass Index (BMI)
- cross-sectional studies
- data analysis
- longitudinal studies
- prospective studies
- compositional data analysis
- time-use epidemiology