2014 Consensus statement on improving pelvic floor muscle training adherence: international continence society 2011 state-of-the-science seminar

Chantale Dumoulin, Jean Hay-Smith, Helena Frawley, Doreen McClurg, Dianne Alewijnse, Kari Bo, Kathryn Burgio, Shu-Yueh Chen, Pauline Chiarelli, Sarah Dean, Suzanne Hagen, Julia Herbert, Aishath Mahfooza, Frances Mair, Diane Stark, Marijke Van Kampen

Research output: Contribution to conferencePaperpeer-review

65 Citations (Scopus)


Aims: To summarize the findings and ‘‘expert-panel’’ consensus of the State-of-the-Science Seminar on pelvic floor muscle training (PFMT) adherence held prior to the 41st International Continence Society scientific meeting, Glasgow, 2011. Methods: Summaries of research and theory aboutPFMTadherence (based on a comprehensive literature search) were presented by subject experts at the 2011 Seminar to generate discussion and guidance for clinical practice and future research. Supplemental research, post-seminar, resulted in, three review papers summarizing: (1) relevant behavioral theories, (2) adherence measurement, determinants and effectiveness ofPFMTadherence interventions, and (3) patients’ PFMT experiences. A fourth, reported findings from an online survey of health professionals and the public. Results: Few high-quality studies were found. Paper I summarizes 12 behavioral frameworks relevant to theoretical development of PFMT adherence interventions and strategies. Findings in Paper II suggest both PFMT self-efficacy and intention-to-adhere predict PFMT adherence. Paper III identified six potential adherence modifiers worthy of further investigation. Paper IV found patient-related factors were the biggest adherence barrier to PFMT adherence. Conclusion: Given the lack of high-quality studies, the conclusions were informed by expert opinion. Adherence is central to short- and longer-term PFMT effect. More attention and explicit reporting is needed regarding: (1) applying health behavior theory in PFMT program planning; (2) identifying adherence determinants; (3) developing and implementing interventions targeting known adherence determinants; (4) using patient-centred approaches to evaluating adherence barriers and facilitators; (5) measuring adherence, including refining and testing instruments; and (6) testing the association between adherence and PFMT outcome.
Original languageEnglish
Number of pages6
Publication statusPublished - 1 Sep 2015


  • consensus
  • exercise adherence
  • pelvic floor muscle training


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