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Paul Baker


  • 70 Cowcaddens Road, Glasgow Caledonian University

    G4 0BA Glasgow

    United Kingdom


Research output per year

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Personal profile

Research interests

Zoonoses: the source of the next Emerging Infectious Disease


Zoonoses are diseases that can be transmitted from animals to humans, and have been the source of many of the pandemics that have devastated human populations throughout history 1,2. To prevent new emerging infectious diseases it is essential to identify the pathogens (e.g. viruses, bacteria or protozoans) that are currently circulating in the populations of animals that we are in contact with, including pets, farm animals and wildlife.

Ticks are a vector for many diseases worldwide, and in the UK tick numbers are on the increase. In Europe, the number of diseases that we can contract from them is also growing, for example the geographical distribution of tick-borne encephalitis and Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus are changing and are now endemic in eastern and some parts of southern Europe3.

Here in the UK cases of Lyme disease4, caused by the spirochaete bacteria Borrelia burgdorferi and transmitted to humans through bites of the Ixodes genus of tick are increasing, and a closely related species Borrelia myamotoi5 has recently been found in ticks in southern England. It is not only humans that are at risk of new infections, Babeosis canis a protozoan of dogs has also been reported in Essex in England, these are the first cases in the UK found in dogs that have never been abroad6.

By analysing the ticks present on pets and on other animals such as hedgehogs7 that are in close contact or interact with people, identifying, the species of the ticks, the bacteria, the viruses, the protozoans, and the animals the ticks have previously fed on, we can have a better chance of predicting the sources of future infections, and the risk to human health8, 9.

Ticks can also be transported while feeding on migratory birds to the UK from as far away as Africa and eastern Siberia and therefor are a possible source of new viral and bacterial pathogens that may cause human disease10.

Which species are hosting these vectors, how prevalent are the pathogens and, at what levels?


Using molecular biology techniques such as PCR, qPCR Cloning sequencing and bioinformatics I am interested in designing and developing assays to identify these newly arrived pathogens, and the hosts and vectors involved in their propagation.

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Research Output

National survey of occupational advice for lower limb arthroplasty patients

Tsang, B., McDonald, D., McNamara, I., Kottam, L., Rangan, A. & Baker, P., 3 Feb 2020, In : Occupational Medicine. 70, 2, p. 123-126 4 p., kqaa006.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

  • Development of an occupational advice intervention for patients undergoing lower limb arthroplasty (the OPAL study)

    Baker, P., Coole, C., Drummond, A. ER., McDaid, C., Khan, S., Thomson, L., Hewitt, C., McNamara, I., McDonald, D. & Fitch, J., 28 Jun 2018, In : BMC Health Services Research. 18

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    Open Access
  • 51 Downloads (Pure)

    Selective CD28 antagonist blunts memory immune responses and promotes long-term control of skin inflammation in nonhuman primates

    Poirier, N., Chevalier, M., Mary, C., Hervouet, J., Minault, D., Baker, P., Ville, S., Le Bas-Bernardet, S., Dilek, N., Belarif, L., Cassagnau, E., Scobie, L., Blancho, G. & Vanhove, B., 1 Jan 2016, In : Journal of Immunology. 196, 1, p. 274-283 10 p.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

  • Correction: selective blockade of CD28-mediated T cell costimulation protects rhesus monkeys against acute fatal experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

    Haanstra, K. G., Dijkman, K., Bashir, N., Bauer, J., Mary, C., Poirier, N., Baker, P., Crossan, C., Scobie, L., 't Hart, B. A. & Vanhove, B., 15 Jul 2015, In : Journal of Immunology. 195, 2

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    Hepatitis E virus genotype 3 in shellfish, United Kingdom

    Crossan, C., Baker, P., Craft, J., Yasu, T., Dalton, H. & Scobie, L., Dec 2012, In : Emerging Infectious Diseases. 18, 12, p. 2085-2087 2 p.

    Research output: Contribution to journalLetter